The first of the three digits which designate the courses of this Catalogue generally indicates the following level or type of course:

1xx. introductory courses, primarily for first year students;
2xx. courses for sophomores or advanced first year students;
3xx. courses for juniors, seniors, and advanced sophomores, almost all with prerequisites and not generally open to first year students;
4xx. seminar, research, and thesis courses, almost all for seniors and/or departmental majors;
5xx. adjunct courses, almost all for 1/4 course credit;
6xx. Special Studies, open only to B.S.S. degree candidates;
7xx. music performance lessons and ensembles, English, and Theatre participation activities; and
9xx. Cornell-affiliated off-campus programs.

When one course number is printed next to another, the following marks are used to indicate their relation to each other:

hyphen-the first course is a prerequisite for admission to the second [MAT 327-328], or the second to the third [RUS 101-102-103]; 

semicolon-the first course is designed for first year students and sophomores or non-majors, the second course for majors or other advanced students in the department [ART 231; 331].

Courses carrying one full course credit (the equivalent of four semester or six quarter hours) have no notation after their titles. Exceptions are indicated: (1/4) one quarter of a course credit; (1/2) one half of a course credit; (1/2-1) one half or one course credit, as the student chooses and if the instructor concurs. (See  One Course At A Time, item 5.)

If a prior course or courses must be taken before another course can be taken, that information is listed after the course description as "Prerequisite(s)." However, a student who has taken or learned the equivalent of the prerequisite elsewhere may take the course. Hence the phrase "or equivalent" is not generally used in this Catalogue. Similarly, since any instructor may with sufficient cause waive the prerequisite(s) for a course upon request, the phrase "or with permission of the instructor" is not generally used either. Hence, when the phrase "permission of the instructor" does appear as the sole prerequisite, it means that permission must be obtained before a student may register for the course.

Finally, for brevity, the phrase "junior standing" is considered to apply here to both juniors and seniors, and the phrase "sophomore standing" applies to all three upper classes.

Repeat Policy
Course descriptions specifically indicate whether the course may be repeated for credit. All courses which do not specify a repeat policy are subject to the rules specified under the heading "Repeating Courses". See Repeating Courses.

Courses that are described on the following pages without a chronological reference are normally offered every year. The notation "alternate years" indicates that the course is usually offered every other year. A few courses are "offered every third year." Others are not offered on a regular basis and are designated as "not offered every year", "offered upon request", or "offered subject to the availability of faculty".

When planning beyond the current year, students must take into account the fact that some of their courses may not be offered every year and must therefore schedule such courses in the years when they are offered. The actual offerings for any academic year are published the preceding spring in the Course Schedule. For the scheduling of courses not offered annually or not advertised on the Course Schedule, students should consult the department chair or the instructor.

The following notations are used: (CR)-a course graded only Credit/No Credit; (OP)-a course where the student with the consent of the instructor may elect to receive either a regular grade or Credit/No Credit; however, students who desire a regular grade must inform the Registrar of this fact before the end of the third day of the term in which the course is undertaken; (NS)-a course where the student cannot use the Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading option.

For a complete listing of all faculty engaged in the academic program, please refer to the web site at and choose "Faculty By Department" from the sidebar.


The Catalogue of Courses, arranged alphabetically by Department.